Steve Reich

人物 | 行业人物 | 娱乐人物 | 音乐人 | Steve Reich

史蒂芬·迈克尔·莱许,美国作曲家, 极简主义 音乐四巨头之一。

简介

史蒂芬·迈克尔·莱许,美国作曲家,1936年10月3日出生,是20世纪60年代晚期的四位极简主义音乐代表人物之一(另外三位分别是:拉·蒙特·杨La Monte Young, 特里·赖利 Terry Riley,和 菲利普·格拉斯 Philip Glass) 。

莱许的父亲是莱纳德·莱许(Leonard Reich),母亲简·希尔曼(June Sillman)是 百老汇 知名女歌手、女演员、作词家。

在他1岁时, 父母离异 、分居。因此,他在纽约、加州两地辗转间度过了童年。

在他14岁时,接触了大量巴洛克早期音乐及二十世纪音乐,开始热切地学习音乐,并且为了演出 爵士乐 ,跟Roland Kohloff学打鼓,对节奏格外敏感。

1957年,21岁的莱许获得康乃尔大学哲学学士学位。当时他也修了一些音乐课程,之后私下跟古典作曲家Hall Overton学了两年作曲。

1958-1961年,莱许进入茱莉亚音乐学院,师事William Bergsma、Vincent Persichetti。

1963年,获得 密尔斯学院 作曲硕士学位。在那时,他拜入米尧(Darius Milhaud)、贝里欧( Luciano Berio )等知名的二十世纪作曲大师门下,之后追随特里·赖利等人进入加州磁带音乐中心工作。

60年代初期,莱许开始使用十二音的技法创作音乐,先后为Robert Nelson的三部电影《Plastic Haircut》、《Oh Dem Watermelons》和《Thick Pucker》创作配乐。其中,《Plastic Haircut》的原声带写于1963年,是个短的磁带拼贴作品,这可能也是他作品中首度运用这种日后让他成一家之言的手法。

此后,莱许受到加州磁带音乐中心同事,同时也是极简主义者特里·赖利的作品《In C》影响,逐渐形成了自己独特的极简主义音乐语言。他在音乐创作中,运用了很多独创性的现代作曲技法,透过简单音乐语法及时间上的相抵,创造出音乐缓慢的位移感。

比如,他使用磁带循环创造了相位语法(Phasing Patterns)——相关代表作有1965完成的第一首主要作品《天将降下大雨》( It's Gonna Rain )和1966年的作品《出现》(Come Out),使人耳目一新。

另外,他运用简单且有声的程序去表现音乐概念,例如1968年为麦克风、扩大机、及喇叭所写的《钟摆音乐》(Pendulum Music),以及1970年为四架 电风琴 所写的《四部风琴》(Four Organs)都因为重复、缓慢的和谐节奏、以及卡农等显着性格而惊艳乐坛。

评价

John Adams commented, "He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." [ 19 ] He has also influenced visual artists such as Bruce Nauman , and has expressed admiration of choreographer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker 's work set to his pieces.约翰亚当斯说:“他没有另起炉灶这么多,因为他向我们展示了一条新途径。”他还影响,例如视觉艺术家布鲁斯·诺曼,并表示钦佩的编舞安妮德肋撒德Keersmaeker '作品设置为他的作品。

In featuring a sample of Reich's Electric Counterpoint (1987) the British ambient techno act the Orb exposed a new generation of listeners to the composer's music with its 1990 production “ Little Fluffy Clouds .” Further acknowledgment of Reich's influence on various electronic dance music producers came with the release in 1999 of the Reich Remixed tribute album which featured reinterpretations by artists such as DJ Spooky , Kurtis Mantronik , Ken Ishii , and Coldcut , among others. 在具有1的样本帝国 电气对位 (1987年)英国环境,化工技术行为的球接触到的音乐作曲家与1990年生产的“新一代听众小蓬松的云彩。“ 电子舞曲 进一步确认各帝国的影响音乐制片人与 混音 版本于1999年的 帝国 纪念专辑其特色为重新解释这些艺术家的DJ鬼,裴家Mantronik ,肯石井,和科尔德卡特,等等。

Reich often cites Pérotin , JS Bach , Debussy and Stravinsky as composers he admires, whose tradition he wished as a young composer to become part of.帝国往往援引佩罗坦, 巴赫 ,德彪西和斯特拉文斯基的作曲家,他钦佩,祝愿他们的传统,他作为一个年轻的作曲家,成为一部分。 Jazz is a major part of the formation of Reich's musical style, and two of the earliest influences on his work were vocalists Ella Fitzgerald and Alfred Deller , whose emphasis on the artistic capabilities of the voice alone with little vibrato or other alteration was an inspiration to his earliest works. John Coltrane 's style, which Reich has described as "playing a lot of notes to very few harmonies", also had an impact; of particular interest was the album Africa/Brass , which "was basically a half-an-hour in F." Reich's influence from jazz includes its roots, also, from the West African music he studied in his readings and visit to Ghana .爵士乐是一种音乐风格的重要组成部分的形成的帝国,工作2的影响,他最早是歌手艾拉费兹杰拉德和阿尔弗雷德德勒,其重点或其他变更艺术小颤音能力的声音单独与被激励着他最早的作品。约翰柯川的风格,其中有帝国“描述为”打了很多的说明,以极少的和谐,也产生了影响,特别感兴趣的是专辑 非洲 /铜 ,其中“基本上是一个半一-楼小时“从爵士乐帝国影响的包括其根, 加纳 还从西非访问音乐,他在他的阅读和研究。 Other important influences are Kenny Clarke and Miles Davis , and visual artist friends such as Sol LeWitt and Richard Serra .其他重要的影响是肯尼克拉克和迈尔斯戴维斯和视觉艺术家朋友如溶胶LeWitt和理查德塞拉。 Reich recently contributed the introduction to Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture (The MIT Press, 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller, aka DJ Spooky .帝国最近贡献了介绍 声音不作承诺:抽样数字音乐与文化 (麻省理工学院出版社,2008)又名主编保罗D ·米勒,道琼斯鬼。

语录

I drove a cab in San Francisco , and in New York I worked as a part-time social worker. Phil Glass and I had a moving company for a short period of time. [...]我开着出租车在旧金山,纽约和我担任兼职社工。菲尔玻璃和我的时间间隔很短的一个 移动公司 的。 I did all kinds of odd jobs [...] I started making a living as a performer in my own ensemble.我做各种零工我开始做我自己作为一个演员合奏生活。 I would never have thought that it was how I was going to survive financially.我绝不会想到这是我要如何生存财政。 It was a complete wonder.这是一个完整的奇迹。 — From an interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, 2002 - 从一,朱克曼采访加布里埃尔2002 The point is, if you went to Paris and dug up Debussy and said, 'Excusez-moi Monsieur…are you an impressionist?'问题是,如果你去巴黎和挖德布西说,'Excusez秀梅大人...你一印象派?' he'd probably say 'Merde!'他很可能就会说:'他妈的! and go back to sleep.并回去睡觉。 That is a legitimate concern of musicologists, music historians, and journalists, and it's a convenient way of referring to me, Riley, Glass, La Monte Young it's become the dominant style.这是一个合法的音乐学者的关注,音乐史学家和新闻记者,这是一个方便的方式向我提到,莱利,玻璃,拉蒙特杨它已经成为主流风格。 But, anybody who's interested in French Impressionism is interested in how different Debussy and Ravel and Satie are—and ditto for what's called minimalism .但是,任何人谁的法国感兴趣的印象派和感兴趣的是如何在不同的德彪西拉威尔和萨蒂是和所谓同上,用于什么的简约。 Basically, those kind of words are taken from painting and sculpture, and applied to musicians who composed at the same period as that painting and sculpture was made 基本上,那些说话方式都从绘画和雕塑,并应用到谁在绘画和雕塑的是同一时期的音乐家组成了. — From an Interview with Rebecca Y. Kim , 2000 从一,访丽贝卡金士元 2000年 All musicians in the past, starting with the middle ages were interested in popular music.所有在过去的音乐家,在流行音乐的兴趣中世纪开始。

(...) Béla Bartók 's music is made entirely of sources from Hungarian folk music . (...) 巴托克的音乐是完全由来源匈牙利民歌。 And Igor Stravinsky , although he lied about it, used all kinds of Russian sources for his early ballets. Kurt Weill's great masterpiece Dreigroschenoper is using the cabaret -style of the Weimar Republic and that's why it is such a masterpiece.和伊戈尔斯特拉文斯基,尽管他是说谎,使用早期芭蕾都是他种俄罗斯来源。科特威尔的伟大杰作Dreigroschenoper使用的是夜总会的风格的 魏玛共和国 ,这就是为什么它是这样一个杰作。 Only artificial division between popular an classical music happened unfortunately through the blindness of Arnold Schoenberg and his followers to create an artificial wall, which never existed before him.只有古典音乐与流行的一人为地分裂发生的不幸失明的通过阿诺德勋伯格和他的追随者,创造一个人工墙,他从来没有存在过。 In my generation we tore the wall down and now we are back to the normal situation, for example if Brian Eno or David Bowie come to me, and if popular musicians remix my music like The Orb or DJ Spooky it is a good thing.在我这一代,我们在墙上撕了,现在我们又回到正常的情况,例如,如果布莱恩伊诺或大卫鲍伊到我这里来,如果流行音乐混音音乐喜欢我的球或道琼斯鬼这是一件好事。 This is a natural normal regular historical way.这是一种自然正常的规律性的历史道路。 — From an Interview with Jakob Buhre- 从Buhre专访雅各布。

作品

Soundtrack for The Plastic Haircut , tape (1963)配乐为理发的塑料,胶带(1963) Music for two or more pianos (1964) 音乐为两个或两个以上的钢琴(1964) It's Gonna Rain , tape (1965) 这是要去雨,磁带(1965) Soundtrack for Oh Dem Watermelons , tape (1965)为原声哦DEM的西瓜,磁带(1965) Come Out , tape (1966) 出来,磁带(1966) Melodica , for melodica and tape (1966) 口风琴, 口风琴 和磁带为(1966) Reed Phase , for soprano saxophone and tape (1966) 里德阶段,为女高音萨克斯管和磁带(1966) Piano Phase for two pianos, or two marimbas (1967) 钢琴相双钢琴曲,或两个marimbas(1967) Slow Motion Sound concept piece (1967) 慢动作声音概念件(1967) Violin Phase for violin and tape or four violins (1967) 小提琴相对于小提琴和磁带或4小提琴(1967) My Name Is for three tape recorders and performers (1967) 我的名字是 3 磁带录像机 和表演(1967) Pendulum Music for 3 or 4 microphones, amplifiers and loudspeakers (1968) (revised 1973) [ 25 ] 摆音乐为3或4麦克风, 放大器 和扬声器(1968)(1973年修订) Four Organs for four electric organs and maracas (1970) 四个机关机构和4个电力马拉卡斯(1970) Phase Patterns for four electric organs (1970) 相模式四(1970年电动机构) Drumming for 4 pairs of tuned bongo drums, 3 marimbas, 3 glockenspiels, 2 female voices, whistling and piccolo (1970/1971) 鼓乐 4一千九百七十一分之一千九百七十对调谐 邦戈鼓 ,三marimbas,3 glockenspiels,2名女性的声音, 吹口哨 和短笛() Clapping Music for two musicians clapping (1972) 音乐拍手鼓掌为两位音乐家(1972) Music for Pieces of Wood for five pairs of tuned claves (1973) 音乐 小品 木材为 5一千九百七十三双克拉韦斯(调谐) Six Pianos (1973) - transcribed as Six Marimbas (1986) 六钢琴(1973) -作为转录六Marimbas (1986) Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973) 音乐槌乐器,人声和器官(1973) Music for 18 Musicians (1974–76) 音乐18音乐家(1974年至1976年) Music for a Large Ensemble (1978) 音乐大合奏(1978) Octet (1979) - withdrawn in favor of the 1983 revision for slightly larger ensemble, Eight Lines 八位字节 (1979) -撤回合奏赞成略大1983年修订为8条线 Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards for orchestra (1979) 变化的风,弦乐和键盘的乐团(1979) Tehillim for voices and ensemble (1981) Tehillim的声音,合奏(1981) Vermont Counterpoint for amplified flute and tape (1982) 佛蒙特州对位的扩增长笛和磁带(1982) The Desert Music for chorus and orchestra or voices and ensemble (1984, text by William Carlos Williams ) 沙漠音乐合唱和乐队合奏或声音,(1984年,由文字威廉卡洛斯威廉斯) Sextet for percussion and keyboards (1984) 六重奏和键盘的敲击乐(1984) New York Counterpoint for amplified clarinet and tape, or 11 clarinets and bass clarinet (1985) 纽约对位的扩增单簧管和磁带,或11 单簧管低音单簧管 (1985) Three Movements for orchestra (1986) 三个乐章(1986年为乐团) Electric Counterpoint for electric guitar or amplified acoustic guitar and tape (1987, for Pat Metheny ) 对位电吉他电吉他或扩增和磁带(1987年,帕特梅特尼) The Four Sections for orchestra (1987) 四节的乐队(1987) Different Trains for string quartet and tape (1988) 不同的火车弦乐四重奏和磁带(1988) The Cave for four voices, ensemble and video (1993, with Beryl Korot ) 该洞为四声音,合奏和视频(1993年,贝里尔Korot ) Duet for two violins and string ensemble (1993)两个二重奏小提琴和乐团(1993) Nagoya Marimbas for two marimbas (1994) 名古屋Marimbas两个marimbas (1994) City Life for amplified ensemble (1995) 城市生活的扩增合奏(1995) Proverb for voices and ensemble (1995, text by Ludwig Wittgenstein ) 谚语的声音,合奏(1995年,由文字 维特根斯坦 ) Triple Quartet for amplified string quartet (with prerecorded tape), or three string quartets, or string orchestra (1998) 三重四重奏弦乐四重奏的扩增(与预先录制的磁带),或3弦乐四重奏,或弦乐团(1998) Know What Is Above You for four women's voices and 2 tamborims (1999) 你知道什么是最重要的四个妇女的声音和2 tamborims (1999) Three Tales for video projection, five voices and ensemble (1998–2002, with Beryl Korot ) 三个故事视频投影,五声音,合奏(1998-2002年同,贝里尔Korot ) Dance Patterns for 2 xylophones, 2 vibraphones and 2 pianos (2002) 舞蹈模式 2木琴,钢琴2 vibraphones和2(2002) Cello Counterpoint for amplified cello and multichannel tape (2003) 大提琴大提琴对位的扩增和多声道磁带(2003) You Are (Variations) for voices and ensemble (2004) 你是(变化)的声音,合奏(2004) For Strings (with Winds and Brass) for orchestra (1987/2004) 弦乐(与风和铜)的乐团(二千零四分之一千九百八十七) Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings dance piece for three string quartets, four vibraphones, and two pianos (2005) 弦乐变化的共鸣,钢琴,和 4 vibraphones舞蹈作品3弦乐四重奏,钢琴和2(2005) Daniel Variations for four voices and ensemble (2006) 丹尼尔变化的声音,合奏四(2006) Double Sextet for 2 violins, 2 cellos, 2 pianos, 2 vibraphones, 2 clarinets, 2 flutes or ensemble and pre-recorded tape (2007) 双六重奏 2小提琴,大提琴2,2架钢琴,2 vibraphones,2单簧管,2刃或合奏及预录磁带(2007) 2x5 for 2 drum sets, 2 pianos, 4 electric guitars and 2 bass guitars (2009) 2x5 2套鼓,钢琴2,4和2个低音 电吉他 吉他(2009) Mallet Quartet for 4 marimbas or 2 marimbas and 2 vibraphones (or solo percussion and tape) (2009) 马雷特四方 4 marimbas或2 marimbas和2 vibraphones(或独奏打击乐和磁带)(2009) WTC 9/11 for String Quartet and Tape (2010) 世贸中心9 / 11弦乐四重奏和胶带(2010) Piano Counterpoint for pianos (2010/11) - commissioning process for London Steve Reich Ensemble 钢琴的钢琴对位(2010/11) -启用集成过程史蒂夫伦敦帝国 London Counterpoint for large ensemble - commissioning process by London Sinfonietta (2013) 伦敦对位的大合奏- 2013年投产过程伦敦小交响乐团()[ edit] Selected discography [ 编辑] 精选唱片  Drumming . 击鼓。 Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings: Deutsche Grammophon and Nonesuch ) So Percussion (Cantaloupe)史蒂夫帝国和音乐家(二录像:德意志留声机和南萨奇)所以敲击(香瓜) Music for 18 Musicians . 音乐18音乐家。 Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings: ECM and Nonesuch), Grand Valley State University New Music Ensemble (Innova), Ensemble Modern (RCA).史蒂夫帝国和音乐家(二录像:流脑和南萨奇),格兰谷州立大学新乐团(伊诺),德国现代室内乐团(RCA的)。 Octet/Music for a Large Ensemble/Violin Phase . 八位字节/乐团音乐的大/小提琴阶段。 Steve Reich and Musicians ( ECM )史蒂夫帝国和音乐家(流脑) Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards/Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ/ Six Pianos . San Francisco Symphony Orchestra , Edo de Waart , Steve Reich & Musicians (Deutsche Grammophon) 风的变化,弦乐和键盘/音乐的马雷特乐器,人声和器官/ 6钢琴。 旧金山交响乐团 ,迪华特,史蒂夫帝国及音乐家(德意志留声机) Tehillim / The Desert Music . Alarm Will Sound and OSSIA, Alan Pierson (Cantaloupe) Tehillim / 沙漠音乐。警报将声音和奥西亚,艾伦皮尔逊(香瓜) Different Trains / Electric Counterpoint . Kronos Quartet , Pat Metheny (Nonesuch) 不同的火车 / 电动对位。克罗诺斯四重奏,八梅特尼(南萨奇) You Are (Variations)/Cello Counterpoint . Los Angeles Master Chorale , Grant Gershon, Maya Beiser (Nonesuch) 你是(变化)/大提琴对位。洛杉矶大师合唱团,格兰特革顺,玛雅贝泽(南萨奇) Steve Reich: Works 1965-1995 . 史蒂夫帝国:工程1965至1995年。 Various performers (Nonesuch). (南萨奇)各种表演。 Daniel Variations , with Variations for Vibes, Pianos and Strings . London Sinfonietta , Grant Gershon, Alan Pierson (Nonesuch) 丹尼尔的变化,与变化的共鸣,钢琴与弦乐。伦敦小交响乐团,格兰特革顺,艾伦皮尔逊(南萨奇) Double Sextet/2x5 . Eighth Blackbird and Bang on a Can (Nonesuch) 双Sextet/2x5。第八届黑鸟和能否帮上(南萨奇)

外文名
国籍
出生地
出生日期
职业
毕业院校
星座
主要成就
代表作品